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The Game Changers Book 1 (The Art of Game-changing Relationships) by Alexander Osterwalder & Yves Pigneur. by jake griffin anderson pdf by ebruegger, and was published by Harpercollins Publishers in August 2011. Create an account.Temperature probe embedded in a transparent electrolyte is used to measure the temperature of a gas or liquid, and in particular for example, of steam. The transparent electrolyte is filled into a cylindrical housing and is used to create a heat sink which surrounds the temperature probe. The measurement of the temperature of the gas or liquid is achieved by measuring the voltage drop across the temperature probe. A gas may not be directly applied to the surface of the temperature probe but the flow of a liquid or other fluid past the temperature probe is used. The temperature sensor is most commonly located at the point of the vapor, the liquid or the flow. In the following description, the temperature sensor is most frequently the temperature sensor itself and it is a probe with a sensor element.
When the temperature sensor is exposed to a low temperature, typically a temperature less than 0° C., the electrical resistance of the sensor element increases and the voltage drop across the sensor element is reduced. The voltage drop is measured using an external voltage measuring unit and the temperature of the gas or liquid is determined by the measuring unit. A temperature signal is output to the external measuring unit using either electrical or optical means.
Typically, the temperature sensor is formed by two dissimilar materials. The first material, or substrate, is typically a sapphire substrate which can be mounted in a semiconductor package. The other material, or emitter material, is typically composed of a material having a high thermal conductivity, typically a thermal conductor such as metal or a silicon carbide substrate.
The thermal conductor is secured to the sapphire substrate using a brazing layer such as gallium. The first material, the sapphire, is chosen for its high thermal conductivity and therefore is suitable as the heat sink. The thermal conductor can be chosen to have a suitable thermal expansion coefficient 0b46394aab